Ariel University, Israel
THE ROLES OF HCO3-/CO32- IN CATALYTIC OXIDATION PROCESSES
Chair Professorship on Hybrid Materials, International and Inter University Centre for Nano-Science and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India.
Bicarbonate/carbonate ions are usually considered only as buffers and proton transfer agents. However recent results point out that they act also as co-catalysts in a variety of oxidation processes. This observation is due to the fact that the redox potential of the couple CO3.-/CO32-, 1.57 V, is considerably lower than that of the OH./H2O suggests that in many catalytic oxidation processes carbonate might be involved. Furthermore carbonate ligands lower considerably the redox potential of transition metal cations. As a result the carbonate ligand is a non-innocent ligand, i.e. a considerable charge transfer from the central cation to the carbonate occurs. The role of bicarbonate/carbonate in catalysing the Fenton and Fenton-Like reactions, in oxidizing Fe(H2O)62+ and in homogeneous and heterogeneous water and methanol electrocatalytic oxidation will be discussed.
Hari Shankar Sharma
Uppsala University, Sweden, Sweden
Stress induced exacerbation of Alzheimer's disease brain pathology is thwarted by co-administration of nanowired cerebrolysin and monoclonal antibodies to amyloid beta peptide with serotonin 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB-399885*
Hari Shanker Sharma, FRSM (UK); Director of Research (International Experimental Central Nervous System Injury & Repair, IECNSIR), University Hospital, Uppsala University is a Professor of Neurobiology (MRC), and is currently affiliated with the Department of Surgical Sciences, Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Uppsala University. He joined Uppsala University in April 1988. He received the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation Fellowship of the German Government (1989–1991) for hyperthermia and BBB dysfunction in Berlin (Germany). He obtained Degree of Doctor of Medical Sciences of Uppsala University in Neuroanatomy in 1999 and was Awarded the best Thesis of the Medical Faculty “The Hwassers Prize” of 1999. His research is supported by The Laerdal Foundation of Acute Medicine, Stavanger, Norway, European Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD), London, UK, and US Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, OH, USA. He received Distinguished International Scientists Collaboration Award, National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), Baltimore, MD (2006–2008); US TechConnect Global Innovation Award Washington DC May 12-16, 2013, May 14-17, 2017. He published over 350 research papers and 95 reviews, 14 monographs, and 85 international book chapters and edited 20 book volumes with a Current H-index = 59 of 338 citations (ISI Database) as of today.
Alzheimer’s disease is one of the most devastating neurodegenerative diseases affecting mankind worldwide with advancing age mainly above 65 years and above causing great misery in life [1-3]. About more than 7 million are affected with Alzheimer’s disease in America in 2023 resulting in a huge burden on the healthcare system and caregivers and support for the family. However, no suitable therapeutic measures are available at the moment to enhance the quality of life of these patients. Development of Alzheimer’s disease may reflect the stress burden of whole life inculcating the disease processes of these neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system. Thus, new strategies using nano delivery of suitable drug therapy including antibodies are needed in exploring neuroprotection in Alzheimer’s disease brain pathology. In this chapter role of stress in exacerbating Alzheimer’s disease brain pathology is explored and treatment strategies are examined using nanotechnology based on our own investigation. Our observations clearly show that restraint stress significantly exacerbates Alzheimer’s disease brain pathology and nano delivery of a multimodal drug cerebrolysin together with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to amyloid beta peptide (AbP) together with a serotonin 5-HT6 receptor antagonist SB399885 significantly thwarted Alzheimer’s disease brain pathology exacerbated by restraint stress, not reported earlier. The possible mechanisms and future clinical significance is discussed.
Uppsala University, Sweden, Sweden
Sleep deprivation enhances amyloid beta peptide, p-tau and serotonin in the brain. Neuroprotective effects of nanowired delivery of cerebrolysin with monoclonal antibodies to amyloid beta peptide, p-tau and serotonin
Dr Aruna Sharma (ORCID /0000-0002-8370-231X), MD, Ph.D., FRSM (UK) Swedish Citizen is Secretary of Research International Experimental Central Nervous System (CNS) Injury & Repair (IECNSIR) currently working at Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anesthesiology & Intensive Care, Uppsala University, Sweden since 1994. Aruna Sharma was awarded the Albert Nelson Marquis Lifetime Achievement Award due to her accomplished scientific career of more than 40 years of experience in her professional network, and achievements, including leadership qualities, and the credentials and successes she has accrued in her field with the current reference value such as position, noteworthy accomplishments, visibility, and prominence in the field of science Dr. Sharma celebrates many years’ experience in her professional network and has been noted for achievements, leadership qualities, and the credentials and successes she has accrued in her field. She has excelled as a medical administrator at the Uppsala University Hospital in Sweden fostering a career in medicine that spans 40 years; she initially began her tenure at the hospital in 1992 as a neuropathologist. Dr. Sharma was additionally active in the same role at Freie Universität, a research university in Berlin, from 1989 to 1991. Her expertise includes nanowires delivery of drugs, brain and spinal cord pathology, blood-CNS barriers dysfunctions in neurological diseases, sleep deprivation-induced neurodegenerative diseases, and neuroprotection. She has published more than 150 Peer-reviewed research papers, contributed to edited books (18), and has been editor and co-editor of Elsevier, Academic, and Springer publications (27) since 2002 from Uppsala University currently.
Sleep deprivation is quite frequent in the military during combat, intelligence gathering, or peacekeeping operations. [1-3]. Even one night of sleep deprivation leads to the accumulation of amyloid beta peptide burden that would lead to the precipitation of Alzheimer’s disease over the years. Thus, efforts are needed to slow down or neutralize the accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (AbP) and associated Alzheimer’s disease brain pathology including phosphorylated tau (p-tau) within the brain fluid environment. Sleep deprivation also alters serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) metabolism in the brain microenvironment and impairs the upregulation of several neurotrophic factors. Thus, blockade or neutralization of AbP, p-tau, and serotonin in sleep deprivation may attenuate brain pathology. In this investigation, this hypothesis is examined using nano delivery of cerebrolysin- a balanced composition of several neurotrophic factors and active peptide fragments together with monoclonal antibodies against ABP, p-tau, and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). Our observations suggest that sleep deprivation-induced pathophysiology is significantly reduced following nano delivery of cerebrolysin together with monoclonal antibodies to AbP, p-tau, and 5-HT, not reported earlier.
Ruaraidh John Wells
NiTech Solutions Ltd, UK
Continuous crystallization of energetic materials using continuous oscillatory baffled crystalliser
Ruaraidh completed his master’s degree in chemistry at the University of Glasgow. Since graduating he has gained 5 years’ experience in product and process development roles in industrial chemistry. As a Process Development Chemist at NiTech Solutions, Ruaraidh has been involved in R&D project management and execution, as well as client technology transfer projects. Through this experience he has in-depth knowledge in the application of NiTech reactors and crystallizers specifically for energetic materials manufacturing, as well as within the fine chemical and pharmaceutical sectors.
Energetic materials such as explosives and solid propellants are typically manufactured in batch processes. Poor heat and mass transfers in batch vessels can lead to products produced with significant batch-to-batch variations, including inconsistent purity and wide particle size distributions, limiting final product performance. Reshoring or upgrading production capability presents unique opportunities to adopt continuous flow manufacturing methods which are safer, greener, more efficient, use less energy, and have lower cost. Crystallisation is a critical purification and isolation step in energetics manufacture as it influences solid purity, morphology, particle shape and crystal size, all of which have a direct impact on the performance and functionality of the explosive or propellant. In this presentation, we report the first successful demonstrations of continuous crystallisation of two energetic materials, ammonium perchlorate (AP) and nitrotriazolone (NTO), using NiTech’s continuous oscillatory baffled crystalliser (COBC) technology. It has been demonstrated that AP and NTO can be continuously crystallised and product properties can be manipulated through varying processing conditions, giving consistent and tuneable particle size. High throughput has also been demonstrated with multiple kilograms of dry material produced per hour in a small footprint system. The feasibility, capability and benefits of continuous crystallisation in energetic materials manufacturing have been demonstrated and are ready to be scaled up to production operations, as well as to incorporate continuous synthesis prior to crystallisation using one continuous system.
Andre F. C. Vieira
Worcester Polytechnique Institute, USA, usa
Monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids are critical for Caenorhabitis elegans survival in elevated glucose conditions
Bachelor's degree - Biomedical Sciences at Universidade Presidente Antonio Carlos - UNIPAC (Brazil) Master's degree - Biotechnology at Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (Brazil) Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) - Biochemistry at Worcester Polytechnique Institute (USA)
The maintenance of optimal membrane composition under basal and stress conditions is critical for the survival of an organism. High-glucose stress has been shown to perturb membrane properties by decreasing membrane fluidity, and the membrane sensor PAQR-2 is required to restore membrane integrity. However, the mechanisms required to respond to elevated dietary glucose are not fully established. In this study, we used a 13C stable isotope-enriched diet and mass spectrometry to better understand the impact of glucose on fatty acid dynamics in the membrane of Caenorhabditis elegans. We found a novel role for monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) in mediating the ability of the nematodes to survive conditions of elevated dietary glucose. This requirement of mmBCFAs is unique to glucose stress and was not observed when the nematode was fed elevated dietary saturated fatty acid. In addition, when worms deficient in elo-5, the major biosynthesis enzyme of mmBCFAs, were fed Bacillus subtilis (a bacteria strain rich in mmBCFAs) in combination with high glucose, their survival rates were rescued to wild-type levels. Finally, the results suggest that mmBCFAs are part of the PAQR-2 signaling response during glucose stress. Taken together, we have identified a novel role for mmBCFAs in stress response in nematodes and have established these fatty acids as critical for adapting to elevated glucose.
Sureshkumar M S
Narasimha Reddy Engineering College, Secunderabad, India, india
Application of Artificial Intelligence in Plastics Recycling
Dr Sureshkumar, Markanday Sureshkumar, native of Madurai, India, started his academic career with a B. Sc., in Chemistry from Sourashtra College, Madurai Kamaraj University, in 1994. Then he specialized in Polymers with a Post-Graduate Diploma in Plastics Processing Technology from the Central Institute of Petrochemical Engineering & Technology (CIPET), Chennai, in 1994. Due to his research inclination, he continued master’s programme in chemistry and obtained M. Sc. In 1994 and M Phil., in 2003 from Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, India. In 2011, he obtained his Ph D from the University of Pisa, Italy, by winning an International Ph D Grant. Dr Sureshkumar is having around two and half decade’s experience in academic, academic administration, research and consultancy services in various capacities. As on date he is having 60 plus publications which include research publications, review papers, book, book chapters, conference proceedings, invited lecture, etc. Presently, he is working on plastics recycling research, new product development, waste management, etc.,
Materials development made a better world and left the world with thrashes, particularly plastics. The one-dimensional growth in developing new materials addressing new applications has posed three dimensional challenges of pollution in land, water and air. More than a decade pollution by waste plastics had emerged as a big threat not only urban areas but also affected the rural areas. More the urbanization more the waste generated. Additionally, micro-plastics detection in smaller living things alarmed the depth and breadth of plastic pollution in, around and everywhere. Irrespective of developed, developing and under-developed countries plastics pollution has become a common challenge. As different types of plastics are combined invariably including wet/dry, electronic/regular, commodity/engineering, degradable/non-degradable, medical/non-medical, etc., complications are added in sorting, binning and recycling. As a result, most of the time, the wastes left unattended or burnt, which invites added challenges. Waste generation, having exponential growth with respect to population growth, needs to be addressed with a better way. Artificial intelligence has emerged as an acceptable solution for plastic recycling. This lecture present a review and case study of application of artificial intelligence techniques in plastics recycling.
Ibrahim Fathy Nassar
Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt , Egypt
Synthesis Design and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Novel 5-(Indol-3-yl)-thiazolidinone Derivatives
Ibrahim F. Nassar has completed his PhD at the age of 30 years from Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt and had 3 postdoctoral studies from 1) Rennes1 University UMR6510, Rennes, France. 2010 2) University of Granada, Spain 2013 and 3) University of Oviedo, Spain, 2015. He is the director of organic chemistry lab, He has published more than 45 papers in high ranked International journals and 1 patent, 3 posters. He has been serving as an editorial board member of Universal Journal of pharmaceutical Research, International Journal of Breast Cancer, Frontiers in Chemistry
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered the most excessively particular drugs for inflammation treatment including pain releasing, anti-pyretic and rheumatoid arthritis. They inhibit synthesis of prostaglandin by blocking the cyclooxygenation of arachidonic acid (AA) to prostaglandin G2(PGG2). This inhibition process is catalyzed by means of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) of which (COX-1) and (COX-2) are two similar but diverse isoforms of the enzyme. OBJECTIVES: The COX-2 inhibition activity of the synthesized compounds was investigated by studying their ability to inhibit the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2). METHODS: Synthesis of compounds, characterization by spectral methods, anticancer evaluation COX2 study, docking study RESULTS: The anti-inflammatory activity was studied revealing that a number of compounds have shown good activities CONCLUSION: Thioxothiazolidin-4-one derivatives of the oxindoline ring system as well as their N-substituted analogs were synthesized and screened for COX-2 inhibition and anti-inflammatory activity in addition to related docking studies. Compounds which showed significant COX-2 inhibition were subjected to anti-inflammatory studies and docking studies. Compound 8b was found to exhibit optimal COX-2 inhibitory potency (IC50 = 5.40?M) comparable with celecoxib, so it appears promising in addition to 3a, 10 and 12. The structure–activity relationships (SAR) acquired showed that appropriately (morpholinyl-oxinidolyl)thiazolidinestructure has the necessary geometry to provide potent and selective inhibition of the COX-2 isozyme. Furthermore analysis of the obtained results for newly prepared compounds opens the possibility for further optimization of studied compounds.
Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Mexico, Mexico
Experimental measurements of the decay coefficient of a phononic metamaterial
J. Arriaga has been working in photonic and phononic crystals and metamaterials for the last 15 years, especially interested in problems of calculating effective parameters using the homogenization theory in the low-frequency limit. Previously he was working in the electronic structure of semiconductors and superlattices and in the field of the so-called photonic crystal fibers.
Acoustic wave propagation in metamaterials is a topic of great interest among the scientific community. For example, the pressure in a plane sound wave propagating in a viscous homogeneous fluid decay exponentially with distance and its decay coefficient depends on the fluid density ?, the sound velocity c, and the two viscosity coefficients ? and ?. The decay length of sound in water at the frequency of 50 kHz is approximately 15 km. Therefore, viscous losses in the bulk can be neglected in the design of devices of sizes a few meters or centimeters. However, when a sound wave meets a solid boundary, a narrow viscous layer of thickness ? =(2?/(??))1/2 is formed. Velocity gradients within this viscous layer greatly exceed the gradients in the bulk, leading to higher viscous losses than in free fluid. Moreover, if the sound wave meets a set of solid boundaries, multiple reflections and viscous friction in narrow channels strongly increase energy losses. In some cases, viscous losses are desirable in devices that reduce external noise. Modern sound absorbers use innovative designs based on metamaterials. Artificial acoustic metamaterials can be used as structures to increase sound absorption to an extent not achieved in natural materials. In this work, we present the experimental results for the decay coefficient of a sound wave propagating in a photonic crystal of solid cylinders embedded in a viscous fluid. Our experimental results show that the decay of the acoustic wave is 5-6 times larger than the decay of sound in a homogeneous medium. We observe that the decay of sound scales is the square root of frequency, unlike the square of frequency scaling known for free viscous fluid. By considering different asymmetric unit cells, we confirm our previous theoretical results that the phonemic crystal behaves like a dissipative homogeneous Meta fluid with anisotropic viscosity.